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Harmonia Early Music

Harmonia Time Capsule: 1789

Let’s take a quick look back in time…to the year 1789…a year of news and a year to remember.

TC-1789-banjos

Photo: jwalkblog (flickr)

A collection of banjos.

1789 was a year of beginnings: the French Revolution starts when the convocation of the Estates-General could not come to a solution to solve the country’s financial problems, George Washington is sworn in as the United States’ first president, and the new constitution takes over for the Articles of Confederation that had controlled American politics until then.

Throughout the 18th century, Irish and Scottish settlers ventured to America in large numbers. These often poor settlers were among the largest group to settle in the Appalachian Mountains. Their folk tunes and ballads became the basis for country music, bluegrass, blues, and jazz music today. One instrument that increased in popularity during this time was the banjo. Similar to various instruments in Africa, enslaved Africans in Colonial America fashioned the early banjo by attaching a neck to a hollowed gourd and stretching animal hide over the open hole.

Religion was an important aspect of Colonial life, but due to a high illiteracy rate, many could not participate fully in music or worship. While some churches used shape notes as a musical teaching tool, others used the technique called “lining out.” In this tradition, a leader would sing a line of a hymn, suggesting the words and the tune that the congregation should sing back.

In other musical news of 1789, Beethoven was just getting his feet wet in the area of composing  and completed his Two preludes through all twelve major keys for piano. Mozart had a busy year: he wrote a clarinet quartet in 1789, and his opera Le Nozze di Figaro premiered in Vienna. No doubt he was also busy with Cosi fan tutte since it premiered the following year. And Joseph Haydn completed his Oxford Symphony, which would be performed two years later in celebration of his honorary doctorate conferred by Oxford University.

Music Excerpt

Sally in the Garden (traditional)
Mary Z. Cox — The Secret Life of Banjo (www.maryzcox.com, 2004)
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album cover

Additional information about people, music, and events mentioned in this time capsule

The Days of the French Revolution
Christopher Hibbert
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album cover

Washington: A Life
Ron Chernow
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album cover

Appalachia: A History
John Alexander Williams
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album cover

African Banjo Echoes In Appalachia: Study Folk Traditions
Cecelia Conway
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album cover

America's Instrument: The Banjo in the Ninteenth Century
Philip F. Gura, James F. Bollman
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album cover

Rivers of Delight / Folk Hymns
Word of Mouth Chorus, Larry Gordon
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album cover

Mozart: Le Nozze di Figaro
Schrott, Persson, Finlay, Pappano, Royal Opera House
Buy from Amazon »
album cover

Haydn: Symphonies No. 88, 89, & 92 'Oxford'
Vienna Philharmonic Orchestra/Karl Boehm
Buy from Amazon »
album cover

Sally in the Garden (traditional)
Mary Z. Cox — The Secret Life of Banjo (www.maryzcox.com, 2004)
Buy from Amazon »
album cover
The Days of the French Revolution
Christopher Hibbert
Buy from Amazon »
album cover
Washington: A Life
Ron Chernow
Buy from Amazon »
album cover
Appalachia: A History
John Alexander Williams
Buy from Amazon »
album cover
African Banjo Echoes In Appalachia: Study Folk Traditions
Cecelia Conway
Buy from Amazon »
album cover
America's Instrument: The Banjo in the Ninteenth Century
Philip F. Gura, James F. Bollman
Buy from Amazon »
album cover
Rivers of Delight / Folk Hymns
Word of Mouth Chorus, Larry Gordon
Buy from Amazon »
album cover
Mozart: Le Nozze di Figaro
Schrott, Persson, Finlay, Pappano, Royal Opera House
Buy from Amazon »
album cover
Haydn: Symphonies No. 88, 89, & 92 'Oxford'
Vienna Philharmonic Orchestra/Karl Boehm
Buy from Amazon »
album cover
Anna Pranger

Anna Pranger moved to Bloomington in 2009 to pursue a degree in music librarianship. Before this, she worked on a degree in music history at the College-Conservatory of Music in Cincinnati, Ohio. She serves as both an assistant producer for Harmonia and the Music Library Assistant for WFIU.

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