In France, climate change is already affecting one of the country's most emblematic industries — winemaking. French vintners say heat, drought and erratic weather are altering the landscape and their centuries-old way of working.
Brothers Remi and Gregoire Couppé are fourth-generation winemakers who craft a top vintage, grand cru St. Emilion. In the past few years they've been confronted with some new challenges. Remi Couppé, 44, says there's no denying the weather is getting hotter and drier.
"Because of the grapes. They show us the change," he says. "Especially in alcohol. The alcohol level has been getting higher in the last five years." These days, the alcohol content by volume can reach 15%, he says; when he was a boy, "it was maximum 12 [% ABV]. It's causing me some problems when I start the vinification process, because I have to use new yeast to avoid too much alcohol. It's really new for me."
The higher alcohol levels come from increased sugar in the grapes because of more sun and heat. What's also new are some of the plants sprouting up between the vines. Couppé picks a flowery-looking weed, holding it up to the blazing sun. "This plant is from the south of Europe and I never saw it here in my life before four years ago."