Indiana

Education, From The Capitol To The Classroom

Report: Indiana’s Teacher Evaluation Law Needs Update

In a new report, Indiana University researchers recommend that Indiana's teacher evaluation law be changed. They want it to focus on new teachers, separate teacher pay from evaluations and include measures to take students living in poverty into consideration. (Alex McCall/WFIU News)

In a new report, Indiana University researchers recommend that Indiana’s teacher evaluation law be changed. They want it to focus on new teachers, separate teacher pay from evaluations and include measures that consider the number of students living in poverty. (Alex McCall/WFIU News)

Researchers studying Indiana methods for evaluating teacher performance say districts should develop clearer and more consistent reviews.

As part of an ongoing project to help schools meet a state law that changed teacher evaluations in Indiana, a research group spent the last four years studying how districts measure and deliver feedback to their teachers. The group is based at the Center on Education and Lifelong Learning at Indiana University and led by researches Hardy Murphy and Sandi Cole,

In a new report, they recommend the law be changed to focus on new teachers and separate teacher pay from evaluations. They also recommend lawmakers tweak the formula to take student poverty into consideration.

“When you look at different teacher ratings, there seems to be a strong association there with the percentage of students on free- and reduced-lunch in classrooms,” Murphy says.

Murphy says, more than any other factor, larger numbers of students on free- and reduced-lunch correlates with lower teacher evaluations. Continue Reading

Jennifer McCormick Sworn In As State Superintendent

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Republican Jennifer McCormick is sworn in as Indiana’s Superintendent of Public Instruction at an inauguration ceremony at the Indiana State Fairgrounds. She defeated Democrat Glenda Ritz in the November election. (photo credit: Claire McInerny/StateImpact Indiana)

Republican Jennifer McCormick became Indiana’s 44th Superintendent of Public Instruction Monday, after her inauguration.

McCormick replaces Democrat Glenda Ritz after defeating her in the November election.

During the campaign, McCormick criticized Ritz’s tumultuous relationship with other state agencies and policy makers, and said she would be a more collaborative leader.

She mentioned this during her speech after the inauguration.

“To all the other elected and appointed officials, I promise to be a good partner to the state of Indiana so we can move forward,” McCormick said. “To Indiana schools, I am proud to be one of you and I look forward to working with you.”

During her speech after the swearing in, McCormick didn’t go into too many details of her agenda as superintendent, but made one mention to the state’s teachers.

“I promise to lead this state as I always have, putting students first,” she said. “That means we must take care of Indiana’s great educators.”

Previously, McCormick served as superintendent for the Yorktown school district, and spent her career in public education.

 

How To Follow Along, And Get Involved In, Indiana’s Legislative Session

The Indiana Statehouse. (Photo Credit: IPBS)

The Indiana Statehouse. (Photo Credit: IPBS)

The legislative session is underway, and that means the next few months will be filled with reporting on votes, language and debates over bills moving through the General Assembly.

Which we know can be … dense.

Of course, following journalists and reading their work is a great way to stay informed about the session, but if you don’t check in every day it can be hard to jump right in.

So how can you stay informed if a story about a bill comes across your Facebook feed or a friend brings up a piece of legislation they heard about?

Here’s our crash course in following legislation through the 2017 session.

How A Bill Becomes A Law In Indiana

First, it’s important to understand the steps every bill takes through the General Assembly, and a lot of that is on its website (here’s instructions on how to use the General Assembly website).

(A) PRE-INTRODUCTION: An idea is developed, and a senator or representative decides to sponsor it. He or she drafts a bill, with research and technical help from the nonpartisan Legislative Services Agency (LSA).

(B) INTRODUCTION: The representative enters the bill into his or her respective chamber. The only exception here is that bills raising revenue can only originate in the House.

(C) CONSIDERATION: This is where the sausage is made. Chamber leadership calls the bill for discussion.

  • First reading: The bill is read aloud to the entire chamber and assigned to an appropriate chamber committee for review.
  • Committee: The committee chairperson puts the bill up for public hearing, where the full committee hears testimony, discusses merits and pitfalls of the measure, and votes on advancing the bill.
  • Second reading: The bill returns to the chamber it came from for discussion before the entire body. Any legislator in that body can suggest amendments to the bill, which have to be approved by a majority vote. After all approved amendments have been added, the chamber votes on the bill as a whole. The chamber may also send the bill back to committee, if they need more information.
  • Third reading: The same chamber now schedules the same bill for a third discussion. This is the same process as the second reading, except that any proposed amendments must be approved by a simple majority. The chamber votes on advancing the bill as a whole.
  • Opposite chamber: The bill moves to the other legislative chamber (form the Senate to the House or the House to the Senate). It then repeats the same process of consideration (first reading, committee, second reading, third reading).
  • Finalizing: The bill returns to the chamber of origin, which must approve or deny any amendments their counterparts added. If approved, the bill moves on to the governor. If denied, the bill goes to a conference committee – a group made up of two members from each chamber, one from each political party. Once they reach agreement, the bill returns to both chambers for approval.

(D) GOVERNOR’S ACTION: The bill is presented to the governor, who has seven days to act. He or she has three options: He can sign the bill, in which case it becomes law; He can do nothing, in which case the bill becomes law without his signature; or, he can veto the bill, in which case it goes back to the House and Senate, who have the opportunity to over-ride the veto with a two-thirds majority vote. If both chambers achieve that majority, the bill becomes law.

You Want To Follow Along?

If there is a particular bill you are interested in (view the entire list of bills filed), here’s how you can track its progress through the process.

We’ll use Senate Bill 30, a bill that would require the Indiana Department of Education to issue reports every semester on students using vouchers.

Head to the General Assembly website and either search the specific bill number (SB30) if you know it, or find it under the Legislation > Bills tab. Choose the bill from this list.

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This will take you to the bill’s individual page.

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The left hand side is where you can find all the information on the bill you’ll want. It’s full version, any amendment and who voted for it in the two chambers. But if you’re looking to see where it is in the process, click “Bill Details”. This is where the list from above will help guide you to where the bill currently sits.

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You Want To Make Your Voice Heard

So you’re following along at home, and decide you have an opinion on a bill. There’s a few things you can do to get involved.

1. Call your legislator. There is a House representative and a Senator that represent you, and you can figure out who those people are by typing your address into this form. Talk to their staff and figure out if you want to leave a message or set up a meeting with your legislator to talk about the issue. Legislators often cite conversations they have with constituents when testifying on a bill, so they do value your input.

2. Follow interest groups. Depending on what type of bills you’re interested in, there is likely some sort of group that is following along day by day. Follow them on Twitter or reach out to see what they are testifying for, and let them know your opinion. Also follow the hashtag on Twitter, #inlegis, to see what is being tweeted about during the session.

3. Testify at a committee. The committee is the group of legislators that decide early on how to amend the bill and if it will move forward. Many of the re-writes happen at this stage, making it the best time to make your voice heard, but getting in front of this group takes a little leg work. First, you must figure out which committee oversees the bill (under “Bill Actions” on the bill’s page). Then you have to closely monitor the committee calendars, which aren’t posted until the week of or before. That calendar is found on the home page.

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If you click on the committee name link, it will tell you what bills are being heard that day. If you want to testify, show up (meetings are always held during business hours), and sign up via a form right before the meeting starts. The chair will call your name during public testimony.

Correction: a previous version of this story said a bill needed a two-thirds majority vote to move forward. It needs a simple majority vote. 

Holcomb Wants Top Education Official To Be Appointed, Not Elected

Indiana Gov.-elect Eric Holcomb wants to create an appointed secretary of education position. In this file photo, Holcomb appears at a campaign event on Aug. 1, 2016. (Brandon J. Smith / Indiana Public Broadcasting)

Indiana Gov.-elect Eric Holcomb wants to create an appointed secretary of education position. In this file photo, Holcomb appears at a campaign event on Aug. 1, 2016. (Brandon J. Smith / Indiana Public Broadcasting)”

Indiana Governor-elect Eric Holcomb says changing the state’s top education official into an appointed, not elected, position will be one his top priorities during the 2017 legislative session.

Holcomb wants to eliminate the elected state superintendent of public instruction position, in favor of an appointed secretary of education.

“This is not about the person, me or the superintendent,” Holcomb says. “This is about the position and how they can be aligned to work truly together.”

Currently, Indiana is one of 13 states that elect a school chiefs. Continue Reading

House Education Bills Span School Prayer To Election Finance

(Indiana General Assembly)

(Indiana General Assembly)

The Indiana House has begun to release its proposed 2017 legislation. Ahead of the Jan. 10 filing deadline, lawmakers have released around 70 bills through Wednesday. Here is a look at some of the proposed education legislation:

Prayer In Schools HB 1024: would provide protections against discrimination of a student and their parents “on the basis of a religious viewpoint or religious expression.” The bill would also mandate traditional public and charter schools to create a policy allowing a student to express religious beliefs at any school event where another student is scheduled to speak.

The U.S. Supreme Court has ruled that state-sponsored, or teacher-led, prayer or religious activities are not allowed in schools.

School Board Candidate Contributions HB 1035: would basically ban candidates for local school board elections from accepting financial contributions from out-of-state donors or from political action committees that also give to non-Indiana candidates. Candidates would be required to return any money received from these two groups.

Out-of-state contributions raised some concerns in the 2012 Indianapolis School Board election. Three winning candidates raised a collective $200,000, in part through large out-of-state contributions.

General Fund Referendum HB 1038: extends the time that voters can approve a a general fund referendum to pay for school facilities to eight years, an addition of one year.

Referendums have become more common after 2008 when the legislature put caps on the amount of property taxes that could be collected to fund schools.

Higher Education Expenses HB 1012: requires public college and universities to provide each student a statement each semester that details how much the student is paying, and how those funds are being spent at the college.

The House Education committee is expected to meet for the first time next week.

Our round-up of major senate education bills can be found here.

Union Wants Program To Help Teachers Address Student Trauma

Indiana State Teacher's Association president Teresa Meredith lays out the union's legislative priorities. One of them includes a new program to help teachers deal with student trauma. (photo credit: Claire McInerny / IPBS)

Indiana State Teacher’s Association president Teresa Meredith lays out the union’s legislative priorities. One of them includes a new program to help teachers deal with student trauma. (photo credit: Claire McInerny / IPBS)

The state’s largest teachers’ union laid out their legislative priorities Wednesday, and one of the group’s goals is to train teachers to deal with student trauma.

Indiana State Teachers Association President Teresa Meredith says one of its main legislative priorities is to train teachers to recognize and work with student trauma.

Meredith says one in four children in the United States deal with some sort of trauma at home, and ISTA wants to give teachers guidance.

“So what I say to a 5-year-old who’s from a different home or from a different set of circumstances might not mean the same thing to a child that has experiences such trauma,” Meredith says.

Meredith suggests the legislature create a grant program managed by the Department of Education to train teachers.

This idea is based on a program in Massachusetts that involves teacher training and increased counseling for students.

ISTA also wants the General Assembly to make school funding more equitable, expanded state-funded preschool and pull student test scores out of teacher evaluations.

 

Rural School Districts To Legislators: Support Our Internet Access

Milan High School senior Evan Smith has limited internet access at home, and often tries to complete his homework at school. Milan Community Schools is the rare rural school district that invested in high speed internet.

Milan High School senior Evan Smith has limited internet access at home, so he often tries to complete his homework at school. Milan Community Schools is the rare rural school district that invested in high speed internet. (photo credit: Claire McInerny/ Indiana Public Broadcasting)

It’s a special day for the high school students in Alyssa Parr’s advanced art history class at Milan High School.

They are taking a field trip to the National Gallery in London, looking at Neoclassical pieces they’ve been studying. But the class of 30 didn’t need to travel for this field trip. Instead, students are taking a virtual tour of the museum, navigating the marble hallways and viewing gold leaf, vaulted ceilings on their laptops.

“There’s that horse again,” Parr says to the class, as her mouse hovers on a painting of a horse.

Parr says this is a big opportunity for her students, who live in the small, Southeastern Indiana town.

“We live pretty far out in the middle of nowhere, so taking a field trip is an all day thing,” she says.

And before today’s virtual field trip to the museum, Parr asked the class of 30 how many had been to an art gallery in person. Eight students raised their hands.

Investing In Technology Is A Huge Expense

It takes a lot of money to ensure 30 kids can take virtual tours on 30 laptops, and Milan invested hundreds of thousands of dollars in high speed internet and technology over the last few years. This kind of investment isn’t always an easy choice for small districts, who have been struggling more in recent years.

The current school funding formula is more challenging for rural schools. The money follows the student, and as rural populations decline, these districts with smaller enrollments are disproportionately affected. The property tax caps passed in 2010 also restrict district budgets.

Students in an advanced art history class at Milan High School look at art at the National Gallery in London via a virtual tour. Virtual field trips and guest speakers are two tools classrooms in Milan value, since they are far away from these in person opportunities.

Students in an advanced art history class at Milan High School look at art in the National Gallery in London via a virtual tour. Virtual field trips and guest speakers are two tools classrooms in Milan access through high speed internet. (photo credit: Claire McInerny/ Indiana Public Broadcasting)

But reliable internet access is not just about fun experiences – like a virtual field trip. Online tools are necessary in today’s classrooms.

Educators agree on the importance of integrating technology into lessons, homework and daily activities, so students are prepared for the technology they’ll work with in the real world.

But many small, rural districts are struggling to upgrade to high speed internet. And, as the legislation session begins, many are hoping the General Assembly will allocate money to help them build their internet infrastructure.

Milan is the exception, but their high speed internet and laptops for every student came at a price.

“You push aside some things that you want to do in terms of repaving a parking lot, repairing some doors or windows,” says Milan Schools Superintendent Paul Ketchum. “You say the investment we make in this project is going to have an exponential effect on students.”

Ketchum says investing in high speed internet not only gives students opportunities in the classroom, it is often the only place they can access the internet and online tools.

“There is a digital divide in Ripley County, especially in our homes,” Ketchum says. “Many students don’t have access to high speed internet.”

Evan Smith is one of those students. He’s a senior at Milan High School, and Wi-Fi at his home is slow and limited. With so much of his homework online, he often works in the middle of the night when the internet is faster and available.

“The Wi-Fi is limited data from 5 a.m. to midnight, but midnight to 5 a.m. its unlimited data,” Smith says.

Some members of the General Assembly have talked about allocating money to help more rural districts do what Milan Schools did: Invest in internet infrastructure and devices so students like Smith can explore the world outside their small towns.

But this issue will compete for lawmakers’ attention in the new legislative session.

When Classroom Lessons Are Buffering

Two hundred miles away from Milan, in Morocco, Ind., North Newton Schools Superintendent Destin Haas walks into his office after a morning filled with problems. It’s cold and windy, and the boilers at one of his schools went offline. The boilers operate from a board connected to the internet, and the wind compromised one of the towers that provides the connection.

“With our towers, if we have inclement weather, whether it be ice, or snow or rain or strong winds, it’s going to affect our internet connections,” says Haas.

He’s one of the rural superintendents that hopes lawmakers will see internet infrastructure as a long-term payoff. Over the last few years, Haas spent a lot of money installing towers to increase bandwidth, but he’d rather install expensive, fiber internet to avoid the problem with weather.

He also purchased iPads for every student, but they can’t all use them at the same time because the bandwidth is just too slow.

“Streaming a video, or streaming music, and we’re in a digital age where we’re using those things, it’s almost impossible to do because of that factor right now,” Haas says.

They often stagger iPad use. And when they take the statewide standardized test, they ask teachers who are not administering a test to stay offline, so the internet doesn’t crash.

So, while legislators will have a lot of requests this budget session, Haas says this should be a priority.

“It would just be like them at the Statehouse and they’re not having internet capabilities, or only half of them can work at a certain time, they’re not going to like it,” Haas says.

Here’s What Education Bills Have Been Filed So Far

The Indiana Statehouse. (Photo Credit: IPBS)

The 2017 General Assembly began Tuesday. Only the Senate has filed education bills so far. (Photo Credit: Indiana Public Broadcasting)

Tuesday is the beginning of the 2017 legislation session, and the Senate released the list of bills it will consider.

We’ve already previewed some of the major topics on the table this budget session, but we now have a look at some individual pieces of legislation senators are proposing.

Here’s are the first education bills this session:

Vouchers: SB 30 would require the Department of Education to give school districts a report of the number of students at their various schools that qualify for vouchers to attend private school. It would require these reports at the end of each semester.

Teacher Background Checks: SB 34 would require all schools, public and private, to conduct background checks on all employees every five years.

Teacher Evaluations: SB 35 says teacher evaluations wouldn’t be required to include objective measures, like standardized tests, when deciding if a teacher is effective. Districts would still be allowed to use scores, if they choose.

Child Abuse: SB 54 would require the Department of Child Services to inform a school corporation, charter school or private school if an employee is reported for child abuse or neglect.

School Resource Officers: SB 61 would require all school resource officers to report any instance of restraining a student or secluding them.

School Transportation: SB 85 would allow school districts to receive property tax money to be used exclusively for transportation.

The first meeting of the Senate Education and Career Development meeting is Wednesday at 1:30 p.m., where some of these bills will be discussed for the first time.

The Senate’s filing deadline is Jan. 12. House members haven’t released any bills yet, their filing deadline is Jan. 10.

What Big Education Issues Should We Watch In 2017?

The State Board of Education voted Nov. 16, 2016 to express support for legislation that would expand preschool in that specific manner, following a blueprint set by state’s current preschool pilot program. (Barnaby Wasson/Flickr)

Expanding state funded pre-k is one issue that will take center stage in 2017. (photo credit: Barnaby Wasson/Flickr)

This was the year to tee up changes in public education, including ISTEP+ panel meetings, a new state superintendent and calls to expand public pre-K. And when the legislative session begins in January, the actions taken in 2016 could evolve into real change.

Here’s what we’re already preparing to cover in 2017, and what you want to keep tabs on.

A New, Or Newly Named, ISTEP+

Much of 2016 was spent talking about changing the state’s assessment system. Legislators scrapped the current test with a bill in early 2016, and they created a panel of educators, legislators and state officials to craft a recommendation to replace the test.

The final recommendation was general and didn’t offer the sweeping changes to the testing system many wanted. Now the fate of the testing system lies with the General Assembly, and lawmakers must craft a new test – a test slated to be in use by the end of the 2017 session.

Recently, Sen. Dennis Kruse, the chair of the Senate education committee, said they may extend that deadline to ensure it’s what they want and done properly.

Jennifer McCormick Will Take Office

After four years of running the Department of Education, Democrat Glenda Ritz will leave the post in January when Republican Jennifer McCormick is sworn in.

As one of the only Democrats in a statewide, elected position, Ritz’s tenure as state superintendent was marked with friction between the State Board of Education, legislators, and often, Republican governor Mike Pence.

Pence publicly blamed Ritz and the DOE for the length of the ISTEP+ in 2015. Ritz and the previous State Board of Education clashed and fought publicly, which led to dramatic moments like Ritz walking out of a meeting and suing the board for communicating via email without her.

Added to this, Ritz and the Republican supermajority were operating from different political perspectives.

It will be interesting to see how a Republican superintendent could change these relationships, and this is something McCormick campaigned on.

McCormick does not currently appear to be remarkably different from Ritz on other issues. She wants to study that state’s voucher system and review its finances, reduce testing and give the school funding formula another look.

How Much Will State Funded Pre-K Expand?

All of 2016, politicians and early education advocates talked about expanding the state’s current pre-K pilot program. And there is some political will to do it – most lawmakers on both sides of the isle have said the state should offer this service to more children.

We’ve already dug into this issue a lot in our reporting on the current pilot program and the probable patch of expansion.

But what we know for sure, in 2017, the legislature will talk about expanding state funded pre-K. Now we will see how they do it.

Will The State Help Teachers Get More Education To Meet New Requirements?

Indiana high school dual-credit teachers are facing new requirements if they want to continue teaching their classes.

The idea behind dual-credit courses is simple – students can earn both high school and college credits at the same time. But changes announced last year would have required anyone teaching one of these course to have a master’s degree, in the same subject, within two years. So a high school teacher teaching advanced Biology must have a master’s in biology.

A state panel appealed to a federal body, arguing that 71 percent of dual-credit instructors teaching nearly 45,000 students don’t meet that requirement and that the timeline to meet it was too short.

Now, dual credit teachers will have until 2022 to get those masters degrees.

But the state does not cover the cost to the teacher. It didn’t allocate money or require universities to give discounts on classes. This is something we will be watching this session.

The 2017 Legislative Session starts Jan. 3.

Our Favorite Education Photos Of 2016

Ximena, 4, kicks a soccer ball the IN Region 4 Migrant Preschool Center. (Peter Balonon-Rosen/Indiana Public Broadcasting)

Ximena, 4, kicks a soccer ball the IN Region 4 Migrant Preschool Center. (Peter Balonon-Rosen/Indiana Public Broadcasting)

As the year comes to an end, we’re taking a look back at the best photos from our stories this year. We’re out there with microphones, our reporter’s notebooks and, also, our cameras.

You welcomed us into your schools, your communities and your homes. This is what we saw.

(In order of publish date. Click to enlarge.)

(Peter Balonon-Rosen/StateImpact Indiana)

(Peter Balonon-Rosen/StateImpact Indiana)

When first-year third grade teacher Gabe Hoffman became a pitching coach at the local high school, planning and grading moved into the weekends, meaning less time with his girlfriend Chelsea. But she’s a first year teacher too, and he says he’s thankful for that, because someone else wouldn’t understand: teaching is a 24/7 job.

And sometimes school and personal life overlap. Listen here.

Hiroko Murabayashi moved to Columbus, Ind. in August with her husband and two kids for her husband's job at Enkei. Yoki, 9, and Rico, 7, both attend Southside Elementary school in the Bartholomew County School Corporation and receive English language services. (Claire McInerny/Indiana Public Broadcasting)

Hiroko Murabayashi moved to Columbus, Ind. in August with her husband and two kids for her husband\’s job at Enkei. Yoki, 9, and Rico, 7, both attend Southside Elementary school in the Bartholomew County School Corporation and receive English language services. (Claire McInerny/Indiana Public Broadcasting)” credit=”Claire McInerny/Indiana Public Broadcasting

Believe it or not, Japanese is the most common first language for most of Columbus, Ind.’s english learner students, besides Spanish. As language teachers work to accommodate students from a variety of cultures, it’s also a task navigating American culture for recent immigrants.

Leah Hession speaks to classmates during an Inside Out class at Indianapolis Re-entry Educational Facility. She says the class is more like a family, than a college course. (Peter Balonon-Rosen/Indiana Public Broadcasting)

Leah Hession speaks to classmates during an Inside Out class at Indianapolis Re-entry Educational Facility. She says the class is more like a family, than a college course. (Peter Balonon-Rosen/Indiana Public Broadcasting)

Indiana used to boast a robust prison education program. In recent years, that’s changed. We found one class that teaches people who are incarcerated, alongside college students. And through the process, both learn about the lives’ of the other.

Fort Wayne Community Schools will spend about $10,000 on billboards this summer. District spokesperson Krista Stockman says state funding from a gain of two new students would pay for the billboards. (Peter Balonon-Rosen/Indiana Public Broadcasting)

Fort Wayne Community Schools will spend about $10,000 on billboards this summer. District spokesperson Krista Stockman says state funding from a gain of two new students would pay for the billboards. (Peter Balonon-Rosen/Indiana Public Broadcasting)

In Indiana, families can choose where to send their to school — private, charter or public school. The aim behind providing this choice? Proponents say it will force all schools to better themselves. Whether it has done that remains controversial. But it has given birth to a new reality for public schools: with education competition, comes the need for education marketing.

The modified bathroom in the new Carrie Gosch Elementary School. (Claire McInerny/Indiana Public Broadcasting)

The modified bathroom in the new Carrie Gosch Elementary School. (Claire McInerny/Indiana Public Broadcasting)

After dangerous levels of lead were found in soil next to Carrie Gosch Elementary School, the school moved into an old middle school, the district had to make adjustments to accommodate younger students. Toilets, counters and other structures had to be lowered, but the district didn’t have enough time and money to get all of the work done before school started.

YMCA staff work on swimming skills with preschool students on August 30, 2016. According to a body of research, when kids swimm at an early age they gain a number of educational benefits. (Claire McInerny/Indiana Public Broadcasting)

YMCA staff work on swimming skills with preschool students on August 30, 2016. According to a body of research, when kids swim at an early age they gain a number of educational benefits. (Claire McInerny/Indiana Public Broadcasting)

Swimming at an early age can help children maintain a healthy weight, develop better sleeping patterns and aid brain development. Studies suggest that early year-round swimming lessons for young children accelerates physical, intellectual and emotional development. And children who learn to swim at a young age often reach many developmental milestones earlier than others.

Ellyn McCall and her son Seth 8 at the Hear Indiana offices. (Peter Balonon-Rosen/Indiana Public Broadcasting)

Ellyn McCall and her son Seth 8 at the Hear Indiana offices. (Peter Balonon-Rosen/Indiana Public Broadcasting)

As more and more Indiana children born deaf or hard of hearing turn towards technology, instead of American Sign Language, school are also facing changes. We look at how they’re working to adapt.

The IN Region 4 Migrant Preschool Center, a free preschool for migrant children teaches students, age 2 to 5, in English and Spanish to prepare migrant children for school, wherever it may be. (Peter Balonon-Rosen/Indiana Public Broadcasting)

The IN Region 4 Migrant Preschool Center, a free preschool for migrant children teaches students, age 2 to 5, in English and Spanish to prepare migrant children for school, wherever it may be. (Peter Balonon-Rosen/Indiana Public Broadcasting)

In this story from October, we took a look behind the scenes of a preschool for migrant children. Depending on the season, Indiana farms employ between 2,000 and 20,000 migrant farm workers. When workers migrate, often their families do, too. And for their children — many with interrupted schooling, histories of trauma, limited English —  preschool can be especially important.

Lorelei Jaffe went to vote with her mom. She brought along the book "White House Dog", and when asked if a dog would make a good president? "I guess so." (Claire McInerny/Indiana Public Broadcasting)

Lorelei Jaffe went to vote with her mom. She brought along the book \”White House Dog\”, and when asked if a dog would make a good president? \”I guess so.\” (Claire McInerny/Indiana Public Broadcasting)” credit=”

On election day, we set out to see what the youngest amongst us thought of the election. And why voting is important. In their own words, here’s what they had to say.

A group of solar panels at Sheridan Elementary School. Sheridan Community Schools, in Hamilton County, is now one of Indiana's first completely solar powered school districts. (Peter Balonon-Rosen/Indiana Public Broadcasting)

A group of solar panels at Sheridan Elementary School. Sheridan Community Schools, in Hamilton County, is now one of Indiana\’s first completely solar powered school districts. (Peter Balonon-Rosen/Indiana Public Broadcasting)” credit=”

Facing rising energy costs, one rural district in the heart of central Indiana took a unique approach to manage: They went completely solar. Sheridan Community Schools estimates they can save $4 million to $5 million over the next 20 years.

Shaw, 8, plays an improv game with Erin McTiernan, an Indiana State University doctoral student. Shaw is a participant in an improv class at Indiana State University for children with high functioning autism. (Peter Balonon-Rosen/Indiana Public Broadcasting)

Shaw, 8, plays an improv game with Erin McTiernan, an Indiana State University doctoral student. Shaw is a participant in an improv class at Indiana State University for children with high functioning autism. (Peter Balonon-Rosen/Indiana Public Broadcasting)

For children with autism, reading others’ emotions and body language can be like a foreign language. But languages can be learned. And improv comedy classes can serve as a language immersion program. This class, specifically designed for 6- to 9-year-olds with high functioning autism, uses improv to teach social skills to children with autism.

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