Democrats say Republicans need to stay true to their pledge and slow down on passing more sweeping education changes.
The budget spearheaded by House Republicans passed the Ways and Means Committee on Tuesday along party lines.
Confusion over which Democrat was to offer the next amendment may have halted the process.
The fines levied on Democrats are allowed under House rules; they do not involve the anti-bolting statute passed last year.
The panel was one of the first chances legislators have had to publicly debate the Republican-led education overhaul since the session ended in April.
As the third week of the Indiana Democrat hold-out begins, the House remains unable to do business.