Pergolas provide not only walls, but also ceilings, with the possibility of plants growing between the series of horizontal beams, to create shade.
Classical Italian gardens are usually formal and constructed symmetrically with intersecting pathways, a central fountain and clipped topiaries and hedges.
Japanese garden design is well known for its focus on different shades and textures of foliage, with a minimal use of flowers.
I am now digging big wide round holes and placing lots of bulbs of different sizes and bloom times all together at differing depths.
In the fall when I look at my garden, and possibly when you look at yours, there are so many things that seem to need a remedy next summer.