This means that the ice cover contains microorganisms that date back thousands of years; recently scientists found microorganisms that froze way back when Rome was founded.
The third kingdom contains all organisms whose cells have a nucleus, including plants, animals, algae, and even fungi. So evolutionarily speaking, humans and fungi are cousins.
If you’ve ever seen movies about World War I, you know that the soldiers in the trenches often wore bulbous gas masks that made them look like human insects. The masks were necessary to protect them from chemical weapons such as chlorine gas, a noxious substance that could almost instantly suffocate unprotected victims.